This week I read 1 Corinthians 14 and it made me think a lot about the history of American Sign Language actually. In 1 Corinthians 14, Paul is talking to the church of Corinth about speaking in tongues. He acknowledges the ability to speak in tongues as being a spiritual gift from God, however, he strongly urges the church of Corinth not to practice the speaking of tongues unless everyone can do it. Paul explains this by stating, “He that speaketh in an unknown tongue speaketh not unto men, but unto God: for no man understandeth him; howbeit in the spirit he speaketh mysteries.” Men that possess the spiritual gift of speaking in tongues can use it to speak to God, yes, but they shouldn’t use it to speak with the rest of the congregation because they won’t be able to understand him. When we enter the church it should be to honor and glorify God and to help our brothers and sisters and Christ to do the same and to better come to know God and his words. If we can’t even understand what the members of the body of Christ are saying then how can we really come to know God and learn at church, let alone properly worship him in his home?
Paul went so far as to suggest that speaking in tongues could be the equivalent of just making noise without understanding what that noise actually means in verses 7-11. Here he states:
And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped? For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle? So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue words easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is spoken? For ye shall speak into the air. There are, it may be, so many kinds of voices in the world, and none of them is without signification. Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me (1751).
Wow, definitely a lot of things going on in these verses! Let’s look at the first part of this first, verses 7-8:
“And even things without life giving sound, whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped? For if the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall prepare himself to the battle?”
A deaf person may never hear the sounds of a pipe, harp, or trumpet. You could blow that trumpet as hard as humanly possible and that deaf person may never prepare himself to battle if that’s all he has to go on because he’ll never know. To him, the sound of a trumpet is completely meaningless.
For me prior to getting my cochlear implant, I missed out on many sounds. I’ve discovered many of them since getting my cochlear implants, but every day I am also still learning more and more sounds. It’s not uncommon for me to jump a little in class as a train goes by or someone talks or fidgets or I hear an unknown sound. I’m constantly trying to define the source of the sound and what it means. This is what the congregation must’ve been like back in Paul’s time when they tried to understand what the speaker was saying when he spoke in tongues that they did not understand.
I also relate this to ASL. The Deaf community needs ASL so that they can understand what is being said in the church. To them, the verbal communication means nothing. They have no idea what the pastor is preaching without the use of ASL. They will never hear the gospel or understand the message that day. The pastor might as well be speaking in tongues because they’d never know otherwise. Here, Thomas Gallaudet’s arguments for using sign language in the church makes sense.
But hold that thought…
Thomas Gallaudet and the manualists didn’t just think that the use of sign language in the church would help the deaf to better understand sermons; they took it a step further. Gallaudet along with the other manualists felt that sign language would bring the deaf closer to God. In Tracy Morse’s dissertation, “Saving Grace: Religious Rhetoric in the Deaf Community,” she quotes Douglas Baynton’s Forbidden Signs when she says:
For manualists, this view was interpreted in Protestant terms: sign language was an original language and meant “closer to the Creation,” not inferiority (Baynton “Savages” 98). However, for oralists, sign language was associated with lower evolution or “inferior races” (Baynton Forbidden 9). Oralists made arguments that deaf students needed to learn spoken English and lip reading or they would be viewed as animals or savages (Morse 51).
Now, let’s look back to the scripture and focus on verse 11 which states, “Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me.
The word “barbarian” here is what stands out the most to me. Do you know who else really loves the word “barbarian”? Alexander Graham Bell who was NOT a manualist like Thomas Gallaudet, but rather an oralist that believed that the deaf needed to move away from sign language and instead learn to speak verbally and read lips and live in the hearing world.
So, what am I saying here? Do I think that this verse is saying sign language is barbaric? Absolutely not, but at the same time, it could be absolutely so. So it’s a yes and a no for me.
Here is what I think that verse is saying, or what the core message Paul has for the church of Corinth is:
We need to speak in a way that people can understand what we are saying in church so as to not cause confusion or anything that can inhibit man’s understanding of the gospel and man’s ability to honor and glorify the lord.
Back in the time of the church of Corinth, speaking in tongues was a barrier for people in the church because it might have benefited the person speaking it, but it did not benefit the church. Paul is calling for the unity of the church – everyone needs to unite as the body as Christ and work in a way that best serves God and not themselves and that involves speaking a universal language they can all understand.
What does this mean for the deaf in the church? Should they be forced to lip-read and practice the oral method? No. I think the deaf should have a right to hear the sermon in a way that is the most accessible to them. Many churches offer the hearing loop to help hard of hearing and deaf people to hear (depending on the degree of hearing loss of course). If a deaf person needs an interpreter, they should have access to it.
If the majority of church attendees are Deaf and rely on sign language, then perhaps that church should consider doing full sermons primarily in ASL, as that is what will benefit that church and help the attendees to learn and honor and glorify God the best.
We don’t have to worry too much about the speaking of tongues in modern day. 1 Corinthians 13:8 says, “Whether there be tongues they shall cease”. People cannot speak in tongues today (I acknowledge that many claim they do – I have my own feelings on that but I’ll be nice and go the route of “no comment” on that…). I think that whereas the church of Corinth had to worry about the speaking in tongues today our issue is more or less about what language or what style/tone to use in church. I think it all depends on the congregation and choosing what is the most accessible to your church goers.
Going back to the discussion on the deaf community…
In Baynton’s Forbidden Signs he explains how many oralists feared that by relying too heavily on sign language the deaf community would isolate themselves from the rest of the world. He stated:
Like their contemporaries in other fields of reform, oralists worried that the lives of people were diminished by being a part of such communities as the deaf community; they would not, it was feared, fully share in the life of the nation. The deaf community, like ethnic communities, narrowed the minds and outlooks of its members. “The individual must be one with race,” one wrote in words reminiscent of many other Progressive reformers “or he is virtually annihilated”; the chief curse of deafness was “apartness from the life of the world,” and it was just this that oralism was designed to remedy. Apartness was the darkness manualists redefined for a new world (Baynton 32).
Sign language was (and still is) very different from spoken English or any spoken language, really It’s different from what the majority is speaking and when people can’t speak our language, either they or we miss out. Isn’t this the same as what was going on in the church of Corinth in a way? Paul wanted to see the church of Corinth come together to honor, serve, and glorify the Lord and to unite as the body of Christ. Speaking in tongues was something very few church members could do that caused a separation or divide between those who could speak and understand it, and those who could not. It became a distraction that kept people from coming to know God.
Is sign language a distraction that keeps the deaf from doing things in their daily lives? It is obvious that it causes a divide from the hearing and the deaf worlds. In the church, it can make things better for the deaf and I can see how it can strengthen their personal relationships with God, but if we only signed and didn’t speak spoken English, the rest of the congregation would suffer. I don’t see sign language as being a form of language that brings a person closer to God in the sense of it’s a superior or holier language than standard English. I think it’s just another language that for some is their primary and therefore the best and for others is just another language in the world that exists but one they don’t partake in or use in their daily lives.
When I first got my cochlear implant I was told that it may make it so I don’t have to rely on lip-reading so much, but that I would probably still do it simply out of habit. They weren’t kidding about that.
Many people with cochlear implants do not want to have to lip-read and even become angry or frustrated by lipreading when they have a cochlear. I can kind of understand where they are coming from. They shouldn’t need to rely on lip-reading with a cochlear and also lip-reading can be exhausting! So I understand why people would want to not need it anymore.
I’ve had a very positive experience with my cochlear implant. Part of this positive experience includes not needing to rely on lipreading so much anymore. I can hear in the dark. I can hear when people are behind me. I can hear without having to look at people. These are all things I could never have even dreamed of doing prior to getting my cochlear implant. It certainly makes for a much easier, less exhausting, and more enjoyable life, that’s for sure!
However, some people see my lipreading as a habit that I should break, especially now that I have a cochlear implant. They are right in saying that I lipread out of habit. As my hearing aid audiologist, Sherry would say, “Lipreading has become my crutch because for so long it’s all I had to get me by.” Sure, I don’t need it so much now that I have my cochlear implant, but it’s definitely not a habit I plan on breaking anytime soon. Here’s why:
I wear my cochlear implant for about 90% of the day and 90% of my life. But there are still times when I can’t wear my cochlear. You may recall me discussing my trip to Six Flags Great Adventure. This is the perfect example. You see, I had to take out my cochlear and my hearing aid for most of those rides and I left it with my boyfriend’s mom. I wasn’t able to hear anything during those times. I have profound hearing loss — approximately 95-97% hearing loss in both ears. I still wanted to be able to communicate with my boyfriend during this time though. After all, some of those lines were very long (we waited over 2 hours to ride Kingda Ka…). I can’t hear any sound at all, but I was still able to communicate and have some small conversations with him. I also do not know sign language, so that definitely wasn’t an option. The thing that helped the most was being able to lipread. I was very thankful that day to have not lost this ability.
Having a cochlear implant means not having to lipread even half as much as I used to. This has been nothing short of a blessing for me. But don’t expect me to give up my ability to lipread altogether. There are times when that ability has become a blessing as well!
For those of you who don’t already know, I am a member of the vast minority of 20-somethings in New Jersey. What do I mean by that? Unlike most 20-something New Jerseyians, I lack possession of a valid driver’s license. Quite frankly, I never had possession of one to begin with.
Not having driver’s license may not be a big deal in some areas like NYC or Philly, but in South Jersey, it’s crucial. I had intended to get my license many times over the years, it just never quite worked out. I have been renewing my driving permit for about 7 years now. Yet I still have not even come very close to having my actual license.
Driving is hard for me. Harder than it would be for most people. Or I guess I should say it “WAS” hard, not so much anymore. It required a lot of focus. I know that driving always requires you to be focused,but this is especially true when you can’t hear. For the past 24 years of my life lip-reading has been to me what my hearing aid audiologist, Sherry, refers to as my “crutch”. My hearing was so bad (legally I am deaf),that unless I could see a person and read their lips, I would have no idea what they were saying. This worked fine in most situations. However, trying to lipread while driving is a bit of a disaster.
When you’re learning how to drive you have to rely a lot of others for directions and guidance. In my case those people were my parents. I had to depend on them to have them tell me where to go or how to make a hard turn or parallel park or really do anything at all involving driving. My parents were naturally used to my hearing and knew to talk loudly and clearly for me. However, clarity is something I did not have. I could often times here them, but not always understand them. Sometimes I couldn’t tell if they said “right” or “left” because they sounded the same. You don’t always have time to have people constantly repeat things to you when you are driving. Sometimes, you have to take a guess as to what the words are. If you think you hear “right” when it really should be “left”, sometimes that can cause all kinds of problems which at times can be outright dangerous. This happened more than a few times for me. I would have to guess like that a lot. I had to keep my eyes on the road. I couldn’t use my lipreading crutch because that would cause me to take my eyes off the road to look at a person. It definitely made driving quite a challenge.
I did actually take my driving test once. It did not go well at all. My instructor seemed annoyed by me right from the start. I couldn’t hear her very well when she told me to do things like put my window down or turn wipers on or even unlock the door. My parents could help repeat these things at that part of the test which helped me but seemed to annoy the instructor anymore. I didn’t get very far with my test. I couldn’t parallel park properly and not being able to hear the instructor only made it worst. I think she just kind of got out of the car at the end and that’s how I knew I was out of chances and have failed my test.
In February of this year I renewed my permit for the 50 million time. I just started practicing driving again for the first time in over a year and for the first time since receiving my cochlear implant. I’m amazed by how much easier driving is now that I have my implant. I don’t have to worry about my hearing. I can hear so well and so clearly. Not being able to read lips while driving is no problem at all because I can hear so well without relying on lipreading. I’ve been doing better than ever with my speed and turns. I even drove a little bit on some small roads with minimal traffic (and at times people and dogs) with no problem. My parking still needs some work…but I am confident I will get there in time.
Getting my license is more important to me now than ever before. I want to be able to drive to work on my own and drive to my boyfriend’s house when he is not home and to be able to take myself places. I will be 25 in less than 2 months and I think having my license, especially at my age, is crucial. My cochlear is giving me a lot more confidence with my driving and I think it’s only a matter of time now when I’ll be ready to re-take my driving test and this time actually pass it and finally earn my license.It’s really amazing to see how big of a difference having my cochlear has made and how much easier driving is now that I have it. It’s truly yet another amazing blessing from God!